died in fatal accidents in worldwide air traffic in 1996. Of 19 million flights, 58 airplanes crashed. (Quelle: Aviation Safety Network)
Mechanical engineering makes it safe to travel
Digital tickets, iris checks, body scanners – modern day traveling is getting faster and more comfortable. But what does it really take for us to be able to feel safe when traveling and to know that our homes are protected?
Electronic detection supports baggage control at the airport
Meanwhile, further baggage checks are taking place in the background. In order to make sure that no explosives or drugs are placed into the cargo hold, suitcases and bags are sniffed by sniffer dogs and/or controlled by handy, high-tech devices. These devices use optical, electrical and chemical methods to detect the substances they are looking for. The tiniest quantities – one billionth or even one trillionth of the air drawn into the device – are sufficient for detection. At the same time, the passengers’ hand luggage is scanned through X-rays as part of a security check. This is a visual inspection to detect dangerous objects.
Passport control made easy
Katrin Thiel has no idea of most of the protective measures which run in the background. She still wants to get gifts for her friends, perhaps a fine cognac and a perfume. The pending passport control is a pure formality for Katrin – for EU citizens, this has been easy as pie since the introduction of the “Easy Pass” system. She places her passport into the scanner and the system reads the stored personal and image data from the chip, which is integrated into the passport cover. Then the doors open to the closed camera section. The system compares the biometric features of the face looking into the camera with the photo on the passport. After a few seconds, you are free to continue onto your aircraft. All in all, passport control lasts only a couple of minutes.
EasyPASS – automated passport control
EasyPASS has been gradually expanded since 2014 and is now in operation in seven locations. In 2016, nearly 9.6 million travelers were processed with EasyPASS – a trend on the rise. Nevertheless, it ensures a high level of security at border control, with increasing comfort for the traveler.
Organic and printed electronics
Organic and printed electronics is a revolutionary new kind of electronics that is thin, light, flexible, robust and cost-effective and suitable for mass production at the same time. It opens up new fields of application through the integration of electronics into all objects of everyday life. Here, organic functional materials are combined with mass-printing processes for the production of electronic components. Due to their flexibility, in contrary to silicon-based electronics, they enable numerous application possibilities.
Printed electronics include flexible batteries, data storage, circuits and wafer-thin displays or sensors. This technology is the key to the Internet of Things and could be put to use in a billion different ways in the future: Ranging from smart packaging, for process monitoring and for the purpose of tracking high-value goods, to rollable displays, light-emitting wallpaper, flexible solar cells or disposable diagnostic devices.
Printed electronics – how does it work?
Super thin and flexible-conductive liquids and pastes on a carrier enable completely new designs and functionalities for electronic components.
Organic and printed electronicsREAD MORE
died in fatal accidents in 2006. Of the now 24 million flights across the world, 33 crashed. (Quelle: Aviation Safety Network)
people lose their lives in accidents on the road, according to figures by the WHO. (Quelle: Aviation Safety Network)
died in 19 airplane crashes around the world in 2016. The total number of flights was 35 million. (Quelle: Aviation Safety Network)
2016 – one of the safest years in the history of aviation
Despite the increased threat of terrorism, flying has never been safer than in 2016. Of the 35 million flights worldwide, 19 aircrafts crashed – the equivalent to 0.0001 percent.
The statistics show that during takeoff and landing – when people are usually most frightened – an accident is much less likely to occur than when the airplane is flying at a constant height.
“Components produced with additives are safe”
Industrial 3D printing combines additive manufacturing processes with which a wide range of plastics and metals can be processed into complex components. Since this layering construction (additive manufacturing) largely eliminates the need for toolmaking and provides greater design freedom, more and more industries are showing interest in this relatively new technology.
VDMA: Mr. Sander, are components made from additive manufacturing being used in passenger aircrafts by Airbus?
Peter Sander: Yes, it is a production standard in our Airbus A350. Over 500 parts are made using additive manufacturing, especially plastic holders for cable harnesses, lines and pipes inside the aircraft. In the A400M military transporter, we are introducing the first metal components made from additive manufacturing: double-walled kerosene lines, which provide an additional safety buffer in the event of a leak.
VDMA: In your opinion, what are the main advantages of additive manufacturing?
Sander: First and foremost, it is the weight savings. With additive processes, we can build up component structures along the occurring force distributions and save on all material. This reduces the weight by 30 to 55 percent, which means that we need much less material. This also reduces fuel consumption. In addition, the entire manufacturing process is CO2 optimized. Components made from additive manufacturing are thus very efficient in terms of resources and CO2. Thanks to the high flexibility of the manufacturing processes, we can adapt aircrafts to suit the needs of the customer.
VDMA: What “printing materials” are relevant for aircraft construction?
Sander: In the field of metal processing, it is the weldable materials: Stainless steel, aluminum and titanium alloys. The first series components are made of titanium, because that is where the greatest saving potential lies. Up until now in the plastics sector, we have been concentrating on polyamides and on polyetherimide (PEI) which, in its molten state, is built up layer by layer into components.
VDMA: Are these kinds of components made from additive manufacturing safe?
Sander: Within aviation, each component is subject to complex non-destructive and destructive testing, independently of the manufacturing processes. If we change the design of the component according to additive manufacturing, we have to prove that our calculations and simulations are aligned with the reality. In addition, the manufacturing processes themselves are subject to strict authorization conditions for which long-term screening programs have to be completed. No passenger needs to worry about the safety of the “printed” parts.
Airbus, Vice President Emerging Technologies & Concepts
Peter Sander has been working for Airbus in Hamburg for over 35 years. Since 2010, the production engineer has been head of Germany’s Emerging Technology & Concepts division. In 2015, he was one of the finalists for the “Deutscher Zukunftspreis” (German future prize) together with Prof. Claus Emmelmann, Head of the Laser Center North, and Frank Herzog, Managing Director of Concept Laser GmbH. Project title: “3-D printing in commercial aircraft engineering – a manufacturing revolution is taking off”. Source: Airbus Operations GmbH
Printing the evolution process
Is it possible to quickly retrace evolution that spanned hundreds of millions of years? 3D printing technology makes it possible. This allows the drupa ricinus, a species of sea snail, to be scanned and reprinted in a wide range of materials to scale: from miniature to three-cubic-meter large giant specimen.
A safe welcome
Ten hours later, the plane lands safely at Miami International Airport. Katrin Thiel must first collect her suitcase – and, of course, check out.
Before entering the United States, she passes through another, automated passport control. This time, however, in addition to indentification via camera, an additional biometric identification is carried out. For this, she has to press the tips of her thumb, middle and index finger onto a touchpad to leave behind her prints with security. The fingerprint sensor detects the fine papillary lines of the fingertips and, within seconds, matches them with the fingerprints stored in the chip of her passport. The high speed and reliability of this test is due to the perfect interplay of optical sensors with ultrasonic or infrared sensors. This ensures that the travelers place their real fingers on the system.
“Components produced with additives are safe”READ MORE
What actually is biometry?
People can be identified, without a single shadow of doubt to its accuracy, using various biometric features. The finger prints, iris, hand and facial geometry, as well as the DNA of each and every one of us is unique, constant and measurable. Biometric recognition systems use mainly optical, thermal and electromagnetic sensors to determine the respective features. Software then compares these with the person’s stored data.
Iris scanners are often heavily criticized, therefore this biometric code is rarely found in the private sector. However, cell phones have begun using this technology which makes its use likely to increase in the future.
Modern sensors enhance perceptions of safety
The quick biometric matching of the person’s real finger with the stored data on the passport means that the security authorities can keep an eye on who enters and leaves the country and when. Using these modern, networked sensor systems, countries are able to control who is allowed to enter just as well as it is done in high-security buildings, for example.
Thanks to the powerful sensor systems, there are hardly any waiting times at the gates despite the additional security check.
Valuables in the hotel room? – No problem.
After arriving at the hotel, Katrin Thiel experiences something new: a fully-networked access system to her hotel room. Instead of opening the door with the usual RFID card, she holds her smartphone against the lock. The lock automatically recognizes her access authorization via Bluetooth. An app will also point her to the nearest ATM and help her to order a taxi later that day. But does a smart system secure the door just as well as a normal lock? And what would happen if someone were to steal her smartphone? As a precautionary measure, she calls the front desk and asks for a safe place to put her laptop, credit cards and jewelry. Fortunately, there is a certified safe in the room.
What actually is biometry?READ MORE
How “safe” is your safe?
Hotel safes which haven’t been certified are often opened within a short time – some can even be cracked without using tools. It would therefore be better to leave valuable items in the safe at the hotel reception.
The ECB awards certification marks according to European standard EN 1627 for burglar-resistant windows and doors. The standard contains resistance classes (RC) from 1 to 6, not all of which are recommended by the police. As a rule of thumb, the higher the RC, the longer a burglar needs to open windows and doors. For the private sector, RC 2 and RC 3 are usually sufficient. Products marked with these classes are difficult to pry open with screwdrivers, wedges or crowbars.
RC 4 and above provide protection against attempts through brute force with an ax, hammer and chisel or bolt cutter, angle grinder and electrical reciprocating saw. Due to the noise, burglars typically only use these means in remote places. Many standardized and certified doors and windows can also be retrofitted. Those interested should inform themselves on the DIN 18104-1 and DIN 18104-2 standards.
Burglar caught by cell phone
Both the network and the “smart home” trend provide a better security of private property against burglars. Apartments can be secured, for example, with a camera-based system which has motion detectors. As soon as someone enters the field of view of the camera, it sends a warning, along with a film sequence, to a smartphone. The apartment door can also be equipped with a sensor and the light can be switched on and off remotely using a timer.
These safeguards helpREAD MORE
Further links on the topic of security
Dr.-Ing. Markus Heering
VDMA Printing and Paper Technology Managing Director
Dr. Markus Heering is the Managing Director of the VDMA Printing and Paper Technology and VDMA Security Systems Associations, as well as the Additive Manufacturing working group. In addition, he also manages the following organizations: European Security Systems Association (ESSA), European Certification Body (ECB), FGD e.V. (Forschungsgesellschaft Druckmaschinen – Research and Development Association for Printing Machines) and PP GmbH (PrintPromotion GmbH).
Public Relations and Market Research Consultant, VDMA Printing and Paper Technology
Since 2016, Jessica Göres has been responsible for public relations within the Printing and Paper Technology Association. She is also responsible for statistics and market research. She informs on current developments in printing and paper technology and supports member companies with market data, statistics and forecasts.
Managing Director of the Electronics, Micro and Nano Technologies Association (EMINT)
Thilo Brückner is Managing Director of the Electronics, Micro and Nano Technologies Association within VDMA. This includes the Productronic and Micro Technologies specialist departments. In addition, the industrial group for battery production at the Association is also docked.
Consultant within the Electronics, Micro and Nano Technologies Association (EMINT)
Since 2016, Daniel Müller has been working on the topic of electronics production in the specialist department within the VDMA Electronics, Micro and Nano Technologies Association. The focus here is, above all, on topics for semi-conductors, display and printed circuit board production as well as other electronic components.
Consultant in the Organic and Printed Electronics Association (OE-A) working group
Since 2015, Sophie Verstraelen has been responsible for public relations within the VDMA Organic & Printed Electronics Association working group. In addition, she is also responsible for the Demonstrator and Sustainability sub-working groups within the association.
Consultant in the Security Systems Association
Since 2010, Falko Adomat has been working within the VDMA Security Systems Association in the areas of market monitoring, statistics and standardization. He also supports VDMA members in matters relating to anti-break-in and anti-theft security.